Sandgathe et al. take up this question in an article in early view in the Journal of Human Evolution entitled "The Roc de Marsal Neandertal child: A reassessment of its status as a deliberate burial". The child from Roc de Marsal has been considered by many to be a deliberate burial. Sangathe and colleagues question the child's status as a burial on several grounds: the position of the body (on its stomach with partially flexed legs), the lack of distinctive burial objects (grave goods), among others. They even argue that the hole the child was buried in was a natural depression, not a (cave)man-made grave pit. I find their arguments fairly convincing....which makes me think critically about how quickly we are willing to attribute modern-human like behaviors to ancient human ancestors.